Assessment of Torture and Ill Treatment of Detainees in Mexico: Attitudes and Experiences of Forensic Physicians
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 2003 April 23-30; 289(16): 2135-2143
CONTEXT: International and Mexican human rights organizations have documented torture of detainees (ie, those held and indicted but not sentenced) in all 31 states and the Federal District of Mexico, but little is known about the attitudes and experiences of forensic physicians examining detainees. OBJECTIVE: To assess forensic physicians' experiences with and attitudes toward the nature and extent of torture and ill treatment among detainees examined in the previous year. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: With the support of the Mexican Office of the Federal Attorney General, as part of a larger initiative to implement governmental reforms to eradicate torture in Mexico, an anonymous, self-administered, written, 80-item survey designed to assess correspondence of physician practices and attitudes with international standards on forensic investigation and documentation of torture was distributed to all federal forensic physicians (n = 115) and a convenience sample of state forensic physicians (n = 99) in Mexico in 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of the numbers of federal detainees medically evaluated and numbers of cases of suspected, alleged, and documented torture or ill treatment among federal detainees; factors interfering with documentation of forensic evidence; physicians' attitudes toward torture; measures that would help them document torture; and recommendations for reform. RESULTS: Survey responses were received from 93 (81%) federal and 91 (92%) state forensic physicians. Forty-nine percent of federal physicians and 58% of state physicians reported that torture is a severe problem for detainees in Mexico. Federal physicians estimated that they had conducted 26 445 to 30 650 or more medical evaluations of the 13 000 federal detainees in the past year and that between 1658 and 4850 of these detainees had alleged torture; these physicians also estimated that they had documented evidence of torture in a range of 285 to 1090 cases. Forty percent of respondents had suspected torture and/or ill treatment of detainees examined during the previous year, 64% had examined detainees who alleged these practices had occurred, and 49% had documented forensic evidence of torture among these detainees. Respondents reported that lack of photographic equipment and services (58%), inadequate monitoring and accuracy of medical examinations (36%), inadequate documentation of torture (29%), limitations in their training (28%), fear of reprisals for documenting torture (23%), and fear of coercion by police officials (18%) are factors that interfere with documentation of torture and ill treatment of detainees. Respondents further reported the need for additional training (98%), standardized protocols and documentation procedures for use in cases of alleged or suspected torture and/or ill treatment (81%), and monitoring to ensure the quality and accuracy of medical evaluations (95%). CONCLUSIONS: Torture and ill treatment of detainees is a major problem in Mexico facilitated by multiple medical and legal factors. Mexican forensic physicians support measures to improve forensic documentation of torture and ill treatment of detainees.
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Documentation of Torture and Ill-Treatment in Mexico: A Review of Medical Forensic Investigations, 2000 to 2002 Moreno, Alejandro; Heisler, Michele; Keller, Allen; Iacopino, Vincent (2003)