Comparison of Mortality Between Private for-Profit and Private Not-for-Profit Hemodialysis Centers: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis
Schunemann, Holger J.
Garg, Amit X.
Choi, Peter T.L.
Grant, Brydon, J.B.
Lavis, John N.
Cook, Deborah J.
Haslam, David R.S.
Guyatt, Gordon H.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 2002 November 20; 288(19): 2449-2457
CONTEXT: Private for-profit and private not- for-profit dialysis facilities provide the majority of hemodialysis care in the United States. There has been extensive debate about whether the profit status of these facilities influences patient mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a difference in adjusted mortality rates exists between hemodialysis patients receiving care in private for-profit vs private not-for-profit dialysis centers. DATA SOURCES: We searched 11 bibliographic databases, reviewed our own files, and contacted experts in June 2001-January 2002. In June 2002, we also searched PubMed using the "related articles" feature, SciSearch, and the reference lists of all studies that fulfilled our eligibility criteria. STUDY SELECTION: We included published and unpublished observational studies that directly compared the mortality rates of hemodialysis patients in private for- profit and private not-for-profit dialysis centers and provided adjusted mortality rates. We masked the study results prior to determining study eligibility, and teams of 2 reviewers independently evaluated the eligibility of all studies. Eight observational studies that included more than 500 000 patient- years of data fulfilled our eligibility criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: Teams of 2 reviewers independently abstracted data on study characteristics, sampling method, data sources, and factors controlled for in the analyses. Reviewers resolved disagreements by consensus. DATA SYNTHESIS: The studies reported data from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 1997, and included a median of 1342 facilities per study. Six of the 8 studies showed a statistically significant increase in adjusted mortality in for-profit facilities, 1 showed a nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality in for-profit facilities, and 1 showed a nonsignificant trend toward decreased mortality in for-profit facilities. The pooled estimate, using a random-effects model, demonstrated that private for-profit dialysis centers were associated with an increased risk of death (relative risk, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.13; P
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