The Professional Status of Bioethics Consultation
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2002; 23(1): 19-43
Is bioethics consultation a profession? With few exceptions, the arguments and counterarguments about whether healthcare ethics consultation is a profession have ignored the historical and cultural development of professions in the United States, the ways social changes have altered the work and boundaries of all professions, and the professionalization theories that explain how modern societies institutionalize expertise in professions. This interdisciplinary analysis begins to fill this gap by framing the debate within a larger theoretical context heretofore missing from the bioethics literature. Specifically, the question of whether ethics consultation is a profession is examined from the perspectives of trait theory, Wilensky's five-stage process of professionalization, Abbott's interdependent system of professions, and Haug's deprofessionalization thesis. While healthcare ethics consultation does not meet the criteria to claim professional status, neither could most professions pass these ideal theoretical standards. Instead of a yes or no dichotomous response to the question, it is more helpful to envision a professionalization continuum with sales clerks or carpenters at one end and medicine or law at the other. During the past decade healthcare ethics consultation has been moving along this continuum toward greater professional status.
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Code of Ethics: To Keep the Visual Welfare of the Patient Uppermost at All Times; to Promote in Every Possible Way, in Collaboration With This Association, Better Care of the Visual Needs of Mankind; to Enhance Continuously Their Educational And Technical Proficiency to the End That Their Patients Shall Receive the Benefits of All Acknowledged Improvements in Visual Care; That No Person Shall Lack for Visual Care, Regardless of His Financial Status; to Advise the Patient Whenever Consultation With an Optometric Colleague or Reference for Other Professional Care Seems Advisable; to Hold in Professional Confidence All Information Concerning a Patient and to Use Such Data Only for the Benefit of the Patient; to Conduct Themselves as Exemplary Citizens; to Maintain Their Offices and Their Practices in Keeping With Professional Standards; to Promote and Maintain Cordial and Unselfish Relationships With Members of Their Own Profession and of Other Professions for the Exchange of Information To the Advantage of Mank Foster, George E.; Bailey R. Norman; Werner, D. Leonard; Roth, Michael S.; Sterling, John; Classe, John G.; Haffner, Alden N.; Creasey, Larry; Walls, Lesley L.; Marenco, Marc (1994-06)