Ethical Considerations for Ventricular Assist Device Support: A 10-Point Model
Petrucci, Ralph J
Benish, Lynne A
Carrow, Barbara L
Hankins, Shelley R
Eisen, Howard J
Entwistle, John W
ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) 2011 Jul-Aug; 57(4): 268-73
The potential for long-term support on a ventricular assist device (VAD) in the bridge-to-transplant (BTT) and destination therapy (DT) settings has created unprecedented ethical challenges for patients and caregivers. Concerns include the patient's adaptation to life on a device and the ethical, clinical, and practical issues associated with living on mechanical support. On the basis of our experience treating 175 consecutive VAD patients, we have developed a model to address the ethical and psychosocial needs of patients undergoing VAD implantation. Patient preparation for VAD implantation encompasses three phases: 1) initial information regarding the physical events involved in implantation, risks and benefits of current device technology, and the use of VAD as a rescue device; 2) preimplant preparation including completion of advance directives specific to BTT/DT, competency determination, and identifying a patient spokesperson, multidisciplinary consultants, and cultural preferences regarding device withdrawal; and 3) VAD-specific end-of-life issues including plans for device replacement and palliative care with hospice or device withdrawal. This three-phase 10-point model addresses the ethical and psychosocial issues that should be discussed with patients undergoing VAD support.
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