Public Understanding of Neural Prosthetics in Germany: Ethical, Social, and Cultural Challenges
Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics : CQ : the international journal of healthcare ethics committees 2011 Jul; 20(3): 434-9
Since the development of the first neural prosthesis, that is, the cochlear implant in 1957, neural prosthetics have been one of the highly promising, yet most challenging areas of medicine, while having become a clinically accepted form of invasiveness into the human body. Neural prosthetic devices, of which at least one part is inserted into the body, interact directly with the nervous system to restore or replace lost or damaged sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. This field is not homogenous and encompasses a variety of technologies, which are in various stages of development. Some devices are well established in clinical practice and have become routine, such as cochlear implants. By comparison, other technologies are in experimental phases and still need to be further developed to achieve the desired results.
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Egas Moniz (1874-1955) and the "Invention" of Modern Psychosurgery: A Historical and Ethical Reanalysis Under Special Consideration of Portuguese Original Sources Gross, Dominik; Schäfer, Gereon (2011-02)The Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz (1874-1955) is often regarded as the founder of psychosurgery. He performed the first prefrontal leukotomy in 1935-about 75 years ago-with the help of neurosurgeon John F. Fulton ...