Ethical Advantages of Using Domestic Bird Species for Magnetic Orientation Research
Communicative & integrative biology 2011 Jan; 4(1): 84-5
Identifying the mechanism in birds that controls magnetic orientation behavior is proving elusive and is currently attracting a plethora of research activity. Much of this research involves wild birds that are caught in nets, tested and released. Ethical concerns regarding these experiments are likely to encompass the welfare of animals, their "rights" and conservation issues. Recently, Pekin ducks derived from migratory ancestors have been shown to posses a magnetic compass in a simple conditioning procedure. The use of domestic bird species provides a refinement in the ethics of animal experimentation since these birds are not caught in nets, are less fearful of humans and their use does not raise conservation concerns. The study of magnetic orientation is a high profile and fascinating areas of animal behavior research and one in which behavioral scientists should be seen to actively embrace the principles of the 3R's.
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Byne, William; Stein, Edward (1997-06)In this article, we evaluate the status of current biological research into sexual orientation and examine the relevance of such research on the legal and social status of gay men and lesbians. We begin with a review ...