The Journal of medicine and philosophy 2010 Dec; 35(6): 656-69
In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens.
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The perils of cognitive enhancement and the urgent imperative to enhance the moral character of humanity Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian (2008-08)As history shows, some human beings are capable of acting very immorally. Technological advance and consequent exponential growth in cognitive power means that even rare evil individuals can act with catastrophic effect. ...
Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian (2011-07)Elizabeth Fenton has criticised an earlier article by the authors in which the claim was made that, by providing humankind with means of causing its destruction, the advance of science and technology has put it in a perilous ...