Nano-Microbicides: Challenges in Drug Delivery, Patient Ethics and Intellectual Property in the War Against HIV/AIDS
du Toit, Lisa C.
Choonara, Yahya E.
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 2010 March 18; 62(4-5): 532-546
As we continue to be embroiled in the global battle against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there has been an ongoing evolution in the understanding of the molecular mode of sexual transmission of HIV. This has gone hand-in-hand with a paradigm shift and research focus on the development of microbicides - compounds designed for vaginal (and possibly rectal) administration that are envisaged to put safe, affordable and accessible protection into the hands of women. However, an effective microbicide is not yet available; innovative approaches for the design of topical vaginal microbicides are urgently needed. The potential of the advancing field of nanomedicine has been earmarked in the increasing efforts to address the major health problems of the developing world. In this review, advances in the design of innovative microbicide nanocarriers and nano-enabled microbicides, henceforth referred to as 'nano-microbicides', are presented; elaborating on nanotechnology's role in the antiviral arena. The role of nanotechnology in the antiviral arena and the unique issues facing the generation of intellectual property relating to nano-microbicides in the ongoing global 'tug-of-war' of 'patients versus patents' are also explicated.
Aids; Ethics; Evolution; Health; Intellectual Property; Patents; Patients; Property; Research; Review; War; Social Control of Science and Technology; Nanotechnology; Drugs and Drug Industry; International and Political Dimensions of Biology and Medicine; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or HIV Infection;
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