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dc.creatorGeissler, Erharden
dc.creatorGuillemin, Jeanneen
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-09T00:42:00Zen
dc.date.available2016-01-09T00:42:00Zen
dc.date.created2010-03en
dc.date.issued2010-03en
dc.identifierdoi:10.2990/29_1_2en
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitationPolitics and the life sciences : the journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences 2010 Mar; 29(1): 2-23en
dc.identifier.urihttp://worldcatlibraries.org/registry/gateway?version=1.0&url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&atitle=German+flooding+of+the+Pontine+Marshes+in+World+War+II.&title=Politics+and+the+life+sciences+:+the+journal+of+the+Association+for+Politics+and+the+Life+Sciences+&volume=29&issue=1&date=2010-03&au=Geissler,+Erhard;+Guillemin,+Jeanneen
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.2990/29_1_2en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10822/1023841en
dc.description.abstractThe German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.en
dc.formatArticleen
dc.languageenen
dc.sourceeweb:331215en
dc.subjectBiological fareen
dc.subjectBioterrorismen
dc.subjectStandardsen
dc.subject.classificationWaren
dc.subject.classificationBiological and Chemical Weaponsen
dc.titleGerman Flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War IIen
dc.provenanceCitation prepared by the Library and Information Services group of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University for the ETHXWeb database.en
dc.provenanceCitation migrated from OpenText LiveLink Discovery Server database named EWEB hosted by the Bioethics Research Library to the DSpace collection EthxWeb hosted by DigitalGeorgetown.en


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