FEMALE ROLE MODEL EFFECTS ON GENDER STEREOTYPE THREAT IN YOUNG GIRLS: THE MULTI-THREAT FRAMEWORK
Young girls have been found to perform lower on math tests compared to young boys, and one mechanism that is associated with girls’ lower performance is gender stereotype threat. The multi-threat framework suggests that gender stereotype threat may occur when young girls interact with women who display high skill in math, but this framework is yet to be tested empirically. To test this framework, I use a nationally representative panel dataset of grades K-8 US school children to examine the relationship between maternal involvement in daughter’s math homework and math achievement, as well as perceived competence and interest in math. Consistent with the multi-threat framework, I find a significant negative relationship between maternal involvement in daughter’s math homework and math test scores, as well as perceived competence and interest in math. However, I also find a similar pattern for boys whose mothers help them with math homework, which suggests that these results are not necessarily being driven by multi-threat stereotype threat.
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Álvarez Toro, Viviana (2011-04)Stereotype threat was measured in 167 racial/ethnic minority and majority pre-medical students from all four undergraduate years at Georgetown University, using a modified survey by Henry (2006). Three main scales were ...