An Assessment of Common Approaches to Estimating Peak Skin Dose Rresulting from Fluoroscopically Guided Interventions
Smith, Caleb Martin
Smith, David A
Fluoroscopy guided procedures are increasing in complexity, and with that, Peak Skin Doses (PSD) that produce cutaneous radiation injury are a growing concern. Direct measurement of PSD is possible, but the decision to do so must be made in advance. PSD estimates and correctly monitoring their possible deterministic skin injuries are important to patient care. Three methods of indirect PSD estimation are examined for nine cases at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital. The aim of the study is to determine the magnitude of variation between these three methods for estimating the PSD. Method 1 (Fluoroscopy Time and Maximum Entrance Skin Exposure) was used at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital up until 2016. Methods 2 and 3 incorporate procedure information (Reference Point Air Kerma, Source-to-Patent distance, and Backscatter Factor) from DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) tags into PSD estimates. Method 1 PSD estimates are vastly different, by as much as 136%, than those from Methods 2 and 3. Method 2 and 3 PSD estimates differ very little, 7.3% or less. Governing bodies have discounted Method 1 as a reliable dose metric because of its poor correlation with PSD. The accuracy of Method 2 is suitable to determine PSD and which dose band a patient fits so their injuries can be accurately monitored. Method 3, the most time intensive approach, should only be used in the case of a sentinel event where a full investigation is warranted.
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