(Trans)Gender Identity: From XX to YY and Everything in Between
This paper looks at the beginning of the transgender "movement" for legal recognition and equality. As opposed to the steady swelling of the gay rights movement, there has not been a clearly defined "movement" in the history of transgenderism. The transgender movement, such as it is, has generally been a tag-along in the gay-rights movement. It has consisted mainly of specific, unplanned events peppered through time, rather than organized, concerted, grass roots efforts to gain social acceptance and legal recognition, let alone legal "equality." These specific events generally were not emblematic socio-political stances for justice, but rather simple stories of people trying to navigate social systems actively working against them. The gay movement for legal recognition and equality has effectively, albeit slowly and not without setbacks, built a structure of supporting institutions. The transgender movement, on the other hand, has historically been fought by individuals facing problems in their daily lives. This marginalized group was, and is, a square peg trying to fit into the round hole of the American legal system. The paper traces some of the legal obstacles faced by transgendered people, both pre- and post-operatively, during the period from 1950-1980. Through the story of America's most famous transgender person, Renee Richards, the paper analyzes the experiences of transgendered people in activities and events that are routine for others--obtaining identification papers and travel documents, marrying, playing sports, and divorcing.
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Incongruent in Identity: Estimating the Effect of Self-Reported and Legal Gender on the Transgender Public Experience Whittington, Charlie Hollis (Georgetown University, 2019)Transgender individuals, or individuals who identify differently from the sex assigned to them at birth, typically go through a gender transition process in order to integrate into society as their correct gender. The ...