General Framing

  • Statutes

  • Case Law

    • United States v. Curtiss Wright Exp. Corp., 299 U.S. 304 (1936). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
    • Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
    • U.S. v. U.S. District Court, 407 U.S. 297 (1972) (“Keith” Case). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
    • United States v. Truong Dinh Hung, 629 F.2d 908 (4th Cir. 1980). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Carpenter v. United States, 138 S. Ct. 2206 (2018). [Westlaw] [Lexis]

Foreign Intelligence Collection

  • Statutes

  • Current Codified Provisions (as amended)

    • Title I: 50 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1813 (FISC, penalties, exclusivity, electronic surveillance). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Title II: 50 U.S.C. §§ 1821-1829 (Physical surveillance). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Title III: 50 U.S.C. §§ 1841-1846 (PR/TT). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Title IV: 50 U.S.C. §§ 1861-1863 (BR). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Title V: 50 U.S.C. §§ 1871-1874 (Oversight, classification). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Title VI: 50 U.S.C. §§ 1881-1881g (Persons outside the US: §§ 702, 703, 704). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Title VII: 50 U.S.C. §§ 1885-1885c (Protections for persons assisting the gov’t). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
  • Case Law

    • Summary Chart
    • FISC Opinions
      • In re Sealed Case, 310 F.3d 717 (FISA Ct. Rev. 2002) (per curiam). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
      • In re Directives, 551 F.3d 1004 (FISA Ct. Rev. 2008) (per curiam). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
      • In re Certified Question of Law, 858 F.3d 591 (FISA Ct. Rev. 2016) (per curiam). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [FISCR Public Filings] [Local]
      • In re: Certification of Questions of Law to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review, No. FISCR 18-01, 2018 WL 2709456 (FISA Ct. Rev. Mar. 16, 2018). (per curiam) [Westlaw] [FISCR Public Filings] [Local]
      • Mem. Op. and Primary Order, In re Application of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for an Order Requiring Production of Tangible Things from [REDACTED], No. BR 13-158, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 157765 (FISA Ct. Oct. 11, 2013). [Lexis] [FISC Public Filings] [Local]
      • Mem. Op. and Order, [REDACTED], No. [REDACTED] (FISA Ct. Apr. 26, 2017) (FISC Memorandum and Opinion approving 2016 Section 702 certifications). [ODNI] [Local]
    • FISC Orders
  • Targeting and Minimization Procedures

    • NSA
      • §702 Targeting Procedures (2017)—Jeff Sessions, Exhibit A: Procedures used by the national Security Agency for Targeting Non-United States Persons Reasonably Believed to be Located Outside the United States to Acquire Foreign Intelligence Information Pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended (Mar. 29, 2017). [ODNI] [Local]
      • §702 Minimization Procedures (2017)—Jeff Session, Exhibit B: Minimization Procedures Used by the National Security Agency in Connection with Acquisitions of Foreign Intelligence Information Pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended (Mar 29, 2017).[ODNI] [Local]
      • §215 Minimization Procedures (2015)—Loretta E. Lynch, Minimization Procedures Used by the National Security Agency in Connection with the Production of Call Detail Records Pursuant to Section 501 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, as Amended (Nov. 24, 2015). [NSA] [Local]
    • CIA
      • §702 Targeting Procedures—N/A [No CIA acquisition pursuant to §702, or Titles I/III of FISA, although can receive, disseminate such information initially collected by FBI or NSA]
      • §702 Minimization Procedures (2016)—Loretta E. Lynch, Exhibit E: Minimization Procedures used by the Central Intelligence Agency in Connection with Acquisitions of Foreign Intelligence Information pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended (Sept. 26, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
      • CIA, REVIEW OF PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES OF CIA TO DISSEMINATE UNITED STATES PERSON INFORMATION ACQUIRED PURSUANT TO TITLES I AND III AND SECTION 702 OF THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE ACT (FISA) (Aug. 2017). [CIA] [Local]
    • FBI
      • §702 Targeting Procedures (2016)—Loretta E. Lynch, Exhibit C: Procedures Used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for Targeting Non-United States Persons Reasonably Believed to be Located Outside the United States to Acquire Foreign Intelligence Information Pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended (Sept. 21, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
      • §702 Minimization Procedures (2016)—Loretta E. Lynch, Exhibit D: Minimization Procedures Used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Connection with Acquisitions of Foreign Intelligence Information Pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended (Sept. 21, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
    • NCTC
      • §702 Targeting Procedures—N/A [NCTC is not currently authorized to engage in targeting or acquisition; instead, they can receive certain intel information already collected by other agencies targeting non-USPs outside the U.S. pursuant to §702. As of 2017, NCTC is not authorized to receive “upstream” collection.] See Nat’l Counterterrorism Ctr., NCTC Factsheet – Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Section 702. [ODNI] [Local]
      • §702 Minimization Procedures (2016)—Loretta E. Lynch, Exhibit G: Minimization Procedures used by the National Counterterrorism Center in Connection with Acquisitions of Foreign Intelligence Information Pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended (Sept. 21, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]

    Affidavits and Certifications

    • FBI Director – James B. Comey, Affidavit of James B. Comey: Director Federal Bureau of Investigation (Sept. 17, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
    • CIA Director – John O. Brennan, Affidavit of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (Sept. 14, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
    • NCTC Director – Nicholas Rasmussen, Affidavit of the Director of the National Counterterrorism Center (Sept. 20, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
    • NSA Director – Michael S. Rogers, Affidavit of Admiral Michael S. Rogers, United States Navy, Director, National Security Agency (Sept. 15, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
    • AG and DNI Certification – James R. Clapper, Certification of the Director of National Intelligence and the Attorney General Pursuant to Subsection 702(g) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended (Sept. 23, 2016). [ODNI] [Local]
    • 2016 Certification Cover Filing. [ODNI] [Local]

    FISC/FISCR Rules of Procedure

    • FISC - Rules of Procedure of the Foreign Intelligence Court [FISA Ct.] [Local]
    • FISCR – Rules of Procedure of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review [FISA Ct. Rev.] [Local]

    DOJ Guidelines

    • Edward H. Levi, Domestic Security Investigation Guidelines (Nov. 4, 1976) (“Levi Guidelines”), reprinted in FBI Statutory Charter: Hearings on the FBI Statutory Charter Before the S. Comm. On the Judiciary, Part 1, 95th Cong. 18-26 (1978). [Hein]
    • John Ashcroft, The Attorney General’s Guidelines for FBI National Security Investigations and Foreign Intelligence Collection (Oct. 31, 2003). [DOJ] [Local]
    • Michael B. Mukasey, The Attorney General’s Guidelines for Domestic FBI Operations (Sept. 29, 2008). [ODNI] [Local]
    • FBI, DOMESTIC INVESTIGATIONS AND OPERATIONS GUIDE (released Mar. 3, 2016; updated Sept. 28, 2016) [Part 1] [Part 2] [Local]
    • FBI, Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (DIOG) Training Material and Related Documents (2008). [Part 1] [Part 2] [Part 3] [Part 4] [Part 5] [Local]
    • ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE UNIT, ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE MANUAL (rev. June 2005). [DOJ] [Local]

    Directives

    Congressional Hearings

    • S. SELECT COMM. TO STUDY GOVERNMENTAL OPERATIONS WITH RESPECT TO INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES, BOOK II: INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES AND THE RIGHTS OF AMERICANS, S. REP. NO. 94-755 (1976) (BOOK II, CHURCH COMM. REP.). Read the cover, letter of transmittal, and preface (pages i-x), Part I (pages 1-20), Part II.B.6 (pages 34-36), Part II.C.4.a-b (pages 54-56), and Part II.D.1 (pages 67-70). [Hein]

    Scholarly Articles/Law Reviews, CRS Reports, FJC Documents

    • Annotated Bibliography
    • Additional Articles
      • Stephen Dycus et al., Organization and Coordination of Counterterrorism Investigations, in NATIONAL SECURITY LAW (4th ed. 2007). [Law Library]
      • Laura K. Donohue, Section 702 and the Collection of International Telephone and Internet Content, 38 HARV. J. L. & PUB. POL’Y 117 (2015). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
      • Laura K. Donohue. Bulk Metadata Collection: Statutory and Constitutional Considerations, 37 HARV. J. L. & PUB. POL’Y 757 (2014). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
      • PRIVACY & CIVIL LIBERTIES OVERSIGHT BD., REPORT ON THE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM OPERATED PURSUANT TO SECTION 702 OF THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE ACT (July 2, 2014). [PCLOB] [Local]
      • PRIVACY & CIVIL LIBERTIES OVERSIGHT BD., REPORT ON THE TELEPHONE RECORDS PROGRAM CONDUCTED UNDER SECTION 215 OF THE USA PATRIOT ACT AND ON THE OPERATIONS OF THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE COURT (Jan. 23, 2014). [PCLOB] [Local]
      • ROBERT TIMOTHY REAGAN, FED. JUDICIAL CTR., FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE ACT LITIGATION (Sept. 2016). [FJC] [Local]

    Summary Materials

    • Title III v. FISA
    • Woods Chart

Executive Branch Guidelines

  • Exec. Order No. 12,333, 3 C.F.R. 200 (1982), reprinted as amended in 50 U.S.C. § 3001 note , at 582-591 (Supp. V 2018) [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
  • Presidential Policy Directive 28, Signals Intelligence Activities, 2014 DAILY COMP. PRES. DOC. 31 (Jan. 17, 2014). [Hein]
  • OFFICE OF THE DIR. OF NAT’L INTELLIGENCE, INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY DIRECTIVE 107: CIVIL LIBERTIES, PRIVACY, AND TRANSPARENCY (Feb. 28, 2018), (updating 2012 ICD 107). [ODNI] [Local]

National Security Letters [5 areas of the U.S. Code]

    Statutory

    Statutory Amendments to NSL statutes

    • USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, § 505, 115 Stat. 272, 365-66. [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • USA FREEDOM Act of 2015, Pub. L. No. 114-23, §§ 501-03, 129 Stat. 268, 282-291. [Westlaw] [Lexis]

    DOJ, Office of Inspector General Reports

    • OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GEN., A REVIEW OF THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION’S USE OF NATIONAL SECURITY LETTERS (Mar. 2007) (1st report — illegal NSLs, exigent letters, off-grid). [OIG] [Local]
    • OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GEN., A REVIEW OF THE FBI’S USE OF NATIONAL SECURITY LETTERS: ASSESSMENT OF CORRECTIVE ACTIONS AND EXAMINATION OF NSL USAGE IN 2006 (Mar. 2008) (2nd report — only 2006, still significant issues). [OIG] [Local]
    • OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GEN., A REVIEW OF THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION’S USE OF EXIGENT LETTERS AND OTHER INFORMAL REQUESTS FOR TELEPHONE RECORDS (Jan. 2010) (focused on exigent letters, off-grid; serious issues). [OIG] [Local]
    • OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GEN., A REVIEW OF THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION’S USE OF NATIONAL SECURITY LETTERS: ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS AND EXAMINATION OF USE IN 2007 THROUGH 2009 (Aug. 2014). [OIG] [Local]

    Case law

    • Doe v. Ashcroft, 334 F. Supp. 2d 471 (S.D.N.Y. 2004). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • Doe v. Gonzales, 500 F. Supp. 2d 379 (S.D.N.Y. 2007). [Westlaw] [Lexis]
    • In re National Security Letter, 930 F. Supp. 2d 1064 (N.D. Cal. 2013), aff’d, 863 F.3d 1110 (9th Cir.). [Westlaw] [Lexis]

Classification

    NSI

    • Exec. Order No. 13,526, 3 C.F.R. 298 (2010), reprinted in 50 U.S.C. § 3161 note, at 726-37 (Supp. V 2018). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
    • Implementation of Exec. Order 13,526:

    Nuclear

    • Atomic Energy Act of 1954, ch. 1073, 68 Stat. 919 (codified as amended in scattered sections of 42 U.S.C.). [Westlaw] [Lexis] [Hein]
    • RD/FRD: 10 C.F.R. pt. 1045. [Westlaw] [Lexis]

    Marking

    • CAPCO, INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY AUTHORIZED CLASSIFICATION AND CONTROL MARKINGS: REGISTER AND MANUAL (v5.1 Dec. 30, 2011; admin. Update, Mar. 30, 2012). [ODNI] [Local]
    • OFFICE OF THE DIR. OF NAT’L INTELLIGENCE, INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY DIRECTIVE 710, CLASSIFICATION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL MARKING SYSTEM (June 21, 2013). [ODNI] [Local]
    • OFFICE OF THE DIR. OF NAT’L INTELLIGENCE, INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY DIRECTIVE 208, MAXIMIZING THE UTILITY OF ANALYTIC PRODUCTS (Jan. 9, 2017). [ODNI] [Local]
    • OFFICE OF THE DIR. OF NAT’L INTELLIGENCE, INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY DIRECTIVE 209, TEARLINE PRODUCTION AND DISSEMINATION (Sept. 6, 2012). [ODNI] [Local]

    Misc.

    • OFFICE OF THE DIR. OF NAT’L INTELLIGENCE, INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY DIRECTIVE 203, ANALYTIC STANDARDS (Jan. 2, 2015). [ODNI] [Local]
    • OFFICE OF THE DIR. OF NAT’L INTELLIGENCE, INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY DIRECTIVE 703, PROTECTION OF CLASSIFIED NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, INCLUDING SENSITIVE COMPARTMENTED INFORMATION (June 21, 2013). [ODNI] [Local]

The Intelligence Community

  • COMM’N ON THE ROLES & CAPABILITIES OF THE U.S. INTELLIGENCE CMTY., The Evolution of the U.S. Intelligence Community – An Historical Overview, in PREPARING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: AN APPRAISAL OF U.S. INTELLIGENCE App. A (Mar. 1, 1996). [Govinfo] [Local]
  • Summary Chart of IC – MICHAEL E. DEVINE & HEIDI M. PETERS, CONG. RESEARCH SERV., IF10527, U.S. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY ELEMENTS: ESTABLISHMENT PROVISIONS (June 27, 2018). [FAS] [Hein] [Local]
  • OFFICE OF THE DIR. OF NAT’L INTELLIGENCE, U.S. NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE: AN OVERVIEW 2013. [ODNI] [Local]
  • ANNE DAUGHERTY MILES, CONG. RESEARCH SERV., IF10525, DEFENSE PRIMER: NATIONAL AND DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE (Dec. 5, 2016). [FAS] [Hein] [Local]
  • ANNE DAUGHERTY MILES & MARIAH J. ARMGA, CONG. RESEARCH SERV., IF10574, DEFENSE PRIMER: INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT TO MILITARY OPERATIONS (Dec. 30, 2016). [FAS] [Hein] [Local]
  • RICHARD L. BERNARD, CTR. FOR CRYPTOLOGIC HISTORY, ELECTRONIC INTELLIGENCE (ELINT) AT NSA (2009). [NSA] [Local]
  • 1-4 EDWARD W. PROCTOR, CIA HISTORICAL STAFF, THE HISTORY OF SIGINT IN THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, 1947-70 (Oct. 1971). [National Security Archive] [Local]

Misc.

  • Agents of Foreign Governments: 18 U.S.C. § 951. [Westlaw] [Lexis]
  • Definition of Foreign Principal/Agent of a Foreign Principal: 22 U.S.C. § 611. [Westlaw] [Lexis]

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