|dc.description.abstract||While research on crosslinguistic influence (CLI) in third language (L3) learning has widely supported typological proximity as a primary determinant of CLI in L3s (e.g., Giancaspro et al., 2015; Montrul et al., 2010; Rothman, 2010, 2011), findings on the roles of learner variables such as second language (L2) proficiency (e.g., Ortega & Celaya, 2013; Williams & Hammarberg, 2009; Tremblay, 2006), L3 proficiency (e.g., Angelovska & Hahn, 2012; Efeoglu et al., 2020; Lindqvist 2009, 2012), crosslinguistic awareness (Apaloo & Cardoso, 2021; Hicks, 2021; Jessner, 2006), and psychotypology (e.g., Bardel & Lindqvist, 2007; Cenoz, 2003; Hall et al., 2009) remain largely inconclusive. Furthermore, research examining the role of language background on CLI that includes heritage speakers among groups of first language (L1) and L2 speakers is limited (e.g., Child, 2014; Iverson, 2009; Koike & Gualda, 2008). The present study aims to contribute to L3 CLI research by examining influence from Spanish on lexical CLI in the oral production of L3 Portuguese. Specifically, it explored 1) the role of Spanish language background in CLI, 2) the relationships between CLI and learner variables, including Spanish and Portuguese proficiency, crosslinguistic awareness, and psychotypology, and 3) the influence of language background on these relationships. 61 adult learners of L3 Portuguese, who were L1, L2 or heritage language (HL) Spanish-speakers, completed two oral production tasks followed by a stimulated recall procedure during which they verbalized their (un)awareness of Spanish influence during task completion. They also completed Spanish and Portuguese proficiency tests as well as questionnaires to gather information regarding their language backgrounds and measure psychotypology and crosslinguistic awareness.
The results showed that Spanish language background differentially contributed to lexical CLI exhibited in L3 Portuguese. Evidence of a facilitative role of L2 proficiency, L3 proficiency, crosslinguistic awareness, and psychotypology in CLI was also found. Additionally, Spanish language background played a role in the relationships between CLI and the learner variables. Ultimately, these findings provide a better understanding of the roles of different learner variables in L3 CLI, which have important implications for L3 classroom instruction.||