The embryo in relationships: a French debate on stem cell research
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2004 October; 29(5): 583- 602
While many European countries are entering unknown legal terrain where the embryo in vitro is concerned, France can already look back on a long tradition of public discussion and legal codification of ways of dealing with in vitro embryos. In its comprehensive law of 1994, France had still rejected embryo research; however, due to the promising perspectives of stem cell research, the new law now pending implies a clear liberalization of the 1994 provisions. Both the French lawmakers and the National Ethics Commission have repeatedly argued that possible utilization of embryos for research purposes may seem legitimate from the moment that there is no more "parental project." De facto, this concept implies that an embryo can be transformed into an object from the moment that the parents cease to desire it and that the value of protection is solely dependent on the will of third persons. At the same time, France is still speaking of guaranteeing respect for the "dignity of the embryo," which would mean that an embryo must not be reduced to a thing and treated for purposes which are not his own. Therefore, the French solution is not a consistent and honest solution, and in its new legal provisions, France has involved herself in manifold contradictions. France has rejected the conception of pre-embryo, but is de facto following Britain's model without making it explicit.
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Moral pluralism and the debate over research on embryonic tissue [review of The Human Embryo Research Debates: Bioethics in the Vortex of Controversy, by Ronald M. Green; The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy, edited by Suzanne Holland, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie Zoloth] Lustig, Andrew (2002-09)
A bill to provide increased Federal funding for stem cell research, to expand the number of embryonic stem cell lines available for Federally funded research, to provide ethical guidelines for stem cell research, to derive human pluripotent stem cell lines using techniques that do not create an embryo or embryos for research or knowingly harm embryos, and for other purposes United States. Congress. Senate (2007-01-23)