Bioethical concepts in theory and practice: an exploratory study of prenatal screening in Iceland.
Vilhjálmur Árnason, 1953-
Medicine, health care, and philosophy 2011 Feb; 14(1): 53-61
A hallmark of good antenatal care is to respect prospective parent's choices and provide information in a way that encourages their autonomy and informed decision making. In this paper, we analyse the meaning of autonomous and informed decision making from the theoretical perspective and attempt to show how those concepts are described among prospective parents in early pregnancy and in the public media in a society where NT screening is almost a norm. We use interviews with Icelandic prospective parents in early pregnancy (N = 40) and material covering the discourse around prenatal screening in the media over 5 years period. Our analysis indicates that both prospective parents and the public media include ethical terms in their rhetoric around prenatal screening although those concepts differ in their expression. We conclude that the context in which these decisions are taken does not encourage moral reflection. Prospective parents describe that there is a lack of dialogue with professionals when decisions are made about screening. With routine offer of screening the conceptualization of bioethical concepts finds its own way through a mainstream discourse which has limited connections to the theoretical notions. This has been neglected in the implementation of screening, as limited effort has been subject to audit with reference to explore how the offer of screening and informed choice is experienced among prospective parents.
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