The commercialization of human stem cells: ethical and policy issues
Resnik, David B.
Health Care Analysis: An International Journal of Health Care Philosophy and Policy 2002; 10(2): 127-154
The first stage of the human embryonic stem (ES) cell research debate revolved around fundamental questions, such as whether the research should be done at all, what types of research may be done, who should do the research, and how the research should be funded. Now that some of these questions are being answered, we are beginning to see the next stage of the debate: the battle for property rights relating to human ES cells. The reason why property rights will be a key issue in this debate is simple and easy to understand: it costs a great deal of money to do this research, to develop new products, and to implement therapies; and private companies, researchers, and health professionals require returns on investments and reimbursements for goods and services. This paper considers arguments for and against property rights relating to ES cells defends the following points: (1) It should be legal to buy and sell ES cells and products. (2) It should be legal to patent ES cells, products, and related technologies. (3) It should not be legal to buy, sell, or patent human embryos. (4) Patents on ES cells, products, and related technologies should not be excessively broad. (5) Patents on ES cells, products, and related technologies should be granted only when applicants state definite, plausible uses for their inventions. (6) There should be a research exemption in ES cell patenting to allow academic scientists to conduct research in regenerative medicine. (7) It may be appropriate to take steps to prevent companies from using patents in ES cells, products, and related technologies only to block competitors. (8) As the field of regenerative medicine continues to develop, societies should revisit issues relating to property rights on a continuing basis in order to develop policies and develop regulations to maximize the social, medical, economic, and scientific benefits of ES cell research and product development.
Cells; Embryos; Health; Medicine; Patents; Property Rights; Property; Regenerative Medicine; Research; Researchers; Rights; Stem Cells; Social Control of Science and Technology; Genetic Patents; Social Control of Human Experimentation; Research on Embryos and Fetuses; Economics of Health Care; Health Care for Embryos and Fetuses;
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Review of K.R. Monroe, R.B. Miller, and J. Tobis. Fundamentals of the Stem Cell Debate: The Scientific, Religious, Ethical and Political Issues; Review of C.B. Cohen. Renewing the Stuff of Life: Stem Cells, Ethics, and Public Policy; Review of R. Korobkin with S.R. Munzer. Stem Cell Century: Law and Policy for a Breakthrough Technology Hyun, Insoo (2008-06)
Note à propos de l?avis du Comité consultatif national d?éthique sur "la Commercialisation des cellules souches humaines et autres lignées cellulaires" [Note on the Opinion of the National Consultative Committee on Ethics on "Commercialization of human embryonic stem cells and other cell lines"] Menasché, Philippe (2006-10)