Armed actors in civil resistance campaigns
Amat Matus, Consuelo.
Thesis (M.A.)--Georgetown University, 2011.; Includes bibliographical references.; Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format. The civil resistance literature argues that the use of violence undermines nonviolent campaigns' ability to achieve their stated goals. But given the diversity of armed actors that could affect nonviolent movements, there is reason to believe that they do not have a uniform effect on campaign outcome. The primary aim of this paper is to make the theoretical and conceptual advancements necessary to study of the impact of contemporaneous violent elements on the outcome of maximalist nonviolent campaigns. I outline six causal mechanisms that link nonviolent action to success and argue that the impact on campaign outcome is contingent upon the type of violent actor. Three factors that define the nature of violent actors, namely their goals (whether they are maximalist or reformist), tactics (whether they are indiscriminate or not) and affiliation to the nonviolent campaign, emerge as particularly important in leveraging our understanding of violence and nonviolent campaign outcome. I develop and test this typology of violent actors in five cases of maximalist nonviolent campaigns: East Germany 1989, Kosovo 1989-1999, Belarus 1989, Yugoslavia 2000 and Belarus 2006.
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