Fabrication and functionalization of carbon nanotube field effect transistors for bio-sensing applications
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Georgetown University, 2009.; Includes bibliographical references.; Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format. Single walled carbon nanotube based field effect transistors are fabricated using photo lithography and electron beam lithography techniques. First catalyst islands are deposited onto the substrate using standard optical lithographic techniques, and the nanotubes are grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition from the pre-patterned catalyst islands. After imaging the grown nanotubes, the metal contact electrodes are patterned using lithography, followed by metal deposition using a sputtering technique. Both single nanotube devices and nanotube film devices are fabricated using this method. The single nanotube devices can be semiconducting, ambipolar, or metallic, with the resistance ranging from tens of kilo ohms to a few mega ohms, while the film devices are generally metallic, with only a few kilo ohms of resistance.; Semiconducting single nanotube devices are functionalized for sensor applications. An electrodeposition technique was developed to functionalize the nanotube with a few materials, including avidin, chitosan, and metal nanoparticles. Among them, metal nanoparticle deposition is the most successful, and both gold and silver nanoparticles have been successfully deposited onto the sidewalls of the nanotubes from an "in situ" sacrificial electrode. The size and density of the nanoparticles, to some extent, can be tailored by controlling the deposition voltage. The gold nanoparticles are generally spherical, while the silver nanoparticles have branching snowflake shapes. These nanoparticles change the ON-state conductance of the nanotube while maintaining its semiconducting characteristics.; The gold nanoparticles on the nanotube sidewalls can serve as anchoring sites for thiol-terminated biomolecules to functionalize the device for biosensing purposes. Results have shown that the thiol-terminated molecules can bind to the Au nanoparticles, however, nonspecific binding to the SiO2 surface is still abundant. Therefore, a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of protein-resistant polyethylene glycol (PEG) is deposited onto the SiO2 surface to provide protein resistance, which results in selective immobilization of bio-receptors to the gold nanoparticles on the nanotube only. This reduces possible noise signals from the nonspecific substrate binding, and is expected to improve the device sensitivity.
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Liu, Yian (Georgetown University, 2014)The research presented in this thesis focuses on the fabrication, functionalization and characterization of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) with gold (Au) nanoparticles for gas and glucose sensing applications.