Spies who stay out in the cold : looking to Soviet illegal operations for insights into non-official cover
Osborne, Angela J.
Thesis (M.A.)--Georgetown University, 2011.; Includes bibliographical references.; Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format. To gather intelligence on 21st hard targets, such as terrorists, criminal syndicates, and rogue states, governments are likely considering the use of non-official cover (NOC) spies. While the current debate on the use of NOCs focuses on the functional challenges of using this method of human intelligence, it does not provide clear examples of how NOCs use has worked in the past. Further, given the secretive nature of NOCs, current examples of NOC use, which could aid in clarifying this debate, are unavailable. By reviewing illustrative case studies from Soviet operations from the 1930s and 1940s, we can evaluate the current debate on NOCs to see if these concrete examples support or refute these arguments. I conclude that the functional challenges against using NOCs can be overcome, and NOCs can collect high quality intelligence against hard targets if governments are willing to take the risk.
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Human Experimentation: An Overview on Cold War Era Programs Statement of Frank C. Conahan, Assistant Comptroller General, National Security and International Affairs Division, Before the Legislation and National Security Subcommittee, U.S. House of Representatives. Committee on Government Operations Unknown creator (United States. General Accounting Office, 1994-09-28)