Strategic planning, recasts, noticing, and L2 development
Since the mid-1990s, the link between recasts and L2 development has been extensively tested, and the results from those studies have largely demonstrated that recasts have a positive effect on L2 learning. With this firm support from previous empirical evidence, studies have begun to focus on how recasts assist learning and under what conditions they are more likely to bring about SLA. Among several factors, recent studies indicated that task variables may affect the extent to which learners might benefit from recasts. In order to extend this line of research, this dissertation examined whether a specific task variable, strategic planning (pre-task planning), helps with L2 development and whether it has an effect on noticing of target forms.The participants were 50 university students learning Japanese and randomly divided into two groups: Planning Group and No Planning Group. Each of those groups was further divided into two smaller groups: either a group that completed three immediate posttests or one that participated in an immediate stimulated recall interview. All participants received recasts on Japanese pragmatic rules associated with Japanese give verbs during treatment task interactions. L2 development was measured by immediate posttests. Participants' awareness was gauged using three introspective measures: think-aloud protocols, stimulated recall interviews, and an exit questionnaire.The results showed that the No Planning Group was more accurate than the Planning Group across all immediate posttests, and the difference was statistically significant for one of the posttests. Regarding awareness, however, no difference was found between the two groups. The results are discussed using 1) participants' comments from the think-alouds, stimulated recalls, and exit questionnaires and 2) participants' perceptions of task difficulty ratings. This study also addressed learners' thought processes during task performance to shed light on the results.
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Zalbidea, Janire (Georgetown University, 2018)The present two-experiment study investigated how learner-generated focus on form and subsequent L2 development is maximized or hindered by relevant factors related to the task (output requirements, modality conditions), ...