Experiences of Remembering and Knowing in SLA, L2 Development, and Text Comprehension: A Study of Levels of Awareness, Type of Glossing, and Type of Linguistic Item
Martinez Fernandez, Ana Maria
Leow, Ronald P.
Attentional models in SLA (e.g., Schmidt, 1990; Robinson, 1995b) propose a crucial role for awareness in L2 learning, and suggest that awareness allows for encoding in episodic memory. In cognitive psychology, Tulving (1983) introduced the notions of episodic memory, which involves recollection of contextual details (i.e., remembering), and semantic memory, characterized by a sense of familiarity (i.e., knowing). Studies indicate a relationship between awareness and remembering (cf. Gardiner, 2008). To date, however, memory experiences have not been empirically investigated in SLA.SLA researchers have been more concerned with the effectiveness of pedagogical techniques to promote learners' awareness. The present study investigates memory experiences and awareness in different glossing conditions. Studies addressing effects of type of glossing on learning and text comprehension have yielded mixed results, and overall, they do not account for a type of item effect. Moreover, although glossing is premised on learners' attention to the glosses, few studies have measured attention and awareness (e.g., by employing concurrent verbal reports).Within an attentional framework, this study investigates remembering and knowing in SLA in relation to L2 development, levels of awareness, type of glossing in a reading comprehension task, and type of linguistic item. Intermediate learners of Spanish read two texts containing lexical and grammatical items under one of five conditions that differed in (a) type of exposure (gloss, gloss embedded in a fill-in task, no gloss), and (b) whether or not they were asked to think aloud while reading. Participants completed immediate and one-week delayed posttests, including text comprehension questionnaires, the remember-know task, and word meaning and grammar production and recognition tests.The results of the study provide evidence for the relationship between remembering and L2 development. Furthermore, the study supports (a) a correlation of awareness with remembering of grammatical items and L2 development overall, and (b) a beneficial effect of glosses on vocabulary noticing and learning, and text comprehension. However, no evidence for the effect of glossing on memory experiences, awareness or learning of grammatical items was found. Finally, findings suggest that vocabulary is further processed into episodic and semantic memory to a greater extent than grammar.
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Glossing for meaning and glossing for form : a computerized study of the effects of glossing and type of linguistic item on reading comprehension, noticing, and L2 learning Guidi, Claudia. (Georgetown University, 2009)