The Effect of Anti-Confinement Campaigns on Animal Product Consumption
Over the past eleven years, citizens have launched a series of state-level initiatives to increase the minimum amount of floor space allotted to veal calves, pregnant sows, and laying hens. This study examines whether exposure to these initiatives, referred to as anti-confinement campaigns, influences consumption of pork, poultry, eggs, beef, dairy, and fish.Consumption is defined as self-reported expenditure from the Consumer Expenditure Survey divided by local price, obtained from the Quarterly Food at Home Price Database. For each state of interest, the short term effect of exposure to an anti-confinement campaign is assessed by comparing the change in consumption of the state's residents relative to the change in consumption of all other Americans during the three-year period surrounding initiation of the campaign. Three types of national effect are estimated by pooling all campaigns, successful campaigns, and ballot initiatives, respectively. Each test controls for the effects of age, family size, family type, income, education, race, and ethnicity.Analysis of individual states produces inconclusive results, but pooled regression reveals a relationship between campaign exposure and diminished consumption of eggs. Campaigns are also associated with elevated price of eggs, poultry, meat, and seafood.
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Decree No. 94-46 of 5 January 1994 Establishing the Conditions Governing the Voluntary Dissemination of Genetically Modified Organisms Intended for Human Consumption other than Plants, Seeds, Propagating Materials, and Animals, or Constitutive Components of Products for Cleaning Materials, and Objects Intended to Come into Contact with Foods, Products, or Beverages Intended for Human or Animal Consumption France (1994)