Meeting of World Medical Association in Venice
Lancet. 1983 Dec 10; 2(8363): 1357.
Several changes in existing WMA declarations were adopted at the 1983 annual Assembly. The 1948 Declaration of Geneva was amended to indicate respect for human life from the "time of commencement" rather than the previous "time of conception." A determination of when life commences was left open. A new clause was added to the 1964 Declaration on Human Experimentation in General to cover protection of children. Wording emphasizing that the entire brain including the stem must have ceased functioning was added to the WMA position on determining death for purposes of organ transplantation. A document regarding euthanasia was approved and will be released as the Declaration of Venice, 1983. It considers euthanasia to be unacceptable even in cases of incurable illness; however, withholding treatment in order to reduce suffering is stated to be appropriate when the patient or next of kin consents. (KIE abstract)
Allowing to Die; Brain; Brain Death; Capital Punishment; Children; Codes of Ethics; Death; Determination of Death; Embryos; Ethics; Euthanasia; Fetuses; Human Experimentation; Human Rights; International Aspects; Illness; Life; Medical Ethics; Organ Transplantation; Organizations; Physician's Role; Prisoners; Professional Organizations; Punishment; Rights; Suffering; Transplantation; Withholding Treatment;
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Unknown author (1983-12-10)
World Medical Association Declaration on Hunger Strikers. Adopted by the 43rd World Medical Assembly Malta, November 1991 and Editorially Revised at the 44the World Medical Assembly Marbella, Spain, September 1992; and Revised by the WMA General Assembly, Pilanesberg, South Africa, October 2006 Unknown author (World Medical Association [WMA], 2006-10)