The Political History of the Artificial Heart
Strauss, Michael J.
New England Journal of Medicine. 1984 Feb 2; 310(5): 332-336.
The federal government's role in the development of the artificial heart is reviewed, with emphasis on the complex interactions of the social forces, institutions, interest groups, and individuals that have created biomedical research policy in the U.S. Failure to achieve the initial goal of a totally implantable artificial heart is attributed not only to scientific and engineering obstacles, but also to difficulties in organization of the government's Artificial Heart Program and to differences in priorities among Congress, executive-branch agencies, the research lobby, and powerful individuals within these groups. Concern is expressed that, in the face of a diminishing governmental role in artificial heart research, unresolved issues of cost, access, and allocation may ultimately be answered by the marketplace and the rapidly emerging "medical-industrial complex." (KIE abstract)
Artificial Organs; Biomedical Research; Biomedical Technologies; Costs and Benefits; Engineering; Federal Government; Financial Support; Government; Government Financing; Health; Hearts; Human Experimentation; Industry; Organ Transplantation; Politics; Public Policy; Regulation; Research; Resource Allocation; Selection of Subjects; Technology; Technology Assessment; Tissue Transplantation; Transplantation; Universities;