Immoral and Moral Uses of Animals
New England Journal of Medicine. 1980 Jan 10; 302(2): 115-118.
Hoff debates the morality of the painful exploitation of animals, particularly in medical research, for human benefit. She advances several philosophical arguments for the unique characteristics of human beings that entitle them to moral consideration, but rejects the claim that animals have no moral standing. Distinctions between the rights of people and animals must be recognized, however, and a person's life generally takes precedence over that of an animal. Hoff concludes that, because animals experience pain and because they enjoy some moral claims (although these are inferior to those of humans), it is wrong to use them in painful and dangerous experiments unless major benefits for humans or other animals will result. (KIE abstract)
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