The Medical Directive: A New Comprehensive Advance Care Document
Emanuel, Linda L.
Emanuel, Ezekiel J.
JAMA. 1989 Jun 9; 261(22): 3288-3293.
Living wills have been endorsed in principle but little used in practice because physicians and patients find them vague and difficult to apply. The authors propose a new advance care document, the Medical Directive, that physicians can recommend to promote the inclusion of patient preferences in medical decisions at the end of life. A Medical Directive is divided into five parts: an introduction, a section of five paradigmatic scenarios of illness in which preferences for treatment are given, a section for the designation of a proxy decision maker, a section for organ donation, and a personal statement of the patient's goals and values. Possible objections to the Medical Directive are answered by the authors, who recommend routine availability and discussion of the Directive. (KIE abstract)
Advance Directives; Allowing to Die; Artificial Feeding; Biomedical Technologies; Brain; Brain Pathology; Chronically Ill; Communication; Critically Ill; Consent; Decision Making; Evaluation; Family Members; Goals; Illness; Legal Aspects; Life; Living Wills; Organ Donation; Patient Care; Patient Participation; Patients; Persistent Vegetative State; Physicians; Prognosis; Prolongation of Life; Proxy; Resuscitation; Resuscitation Orders; Right to Die; Terminal Care; Terminally Ill; Treatment Refusal; Values; Withholding Treatment; Wills;
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Emanuel, Linda L.; Barry, Michael J.; Stoeckle, John D.; Ettelson, Lucy M.; Emanuel, Ezekiel J. (1991-03-28)This study examined in detail patient and public attitudes toward advance directives. A group of primary care outpatients and a sample of the Boston general public were interviewed to answer questions about interest ...