Withholding or Withdrawal of Life Support From the Critically Ill
Smedira, Nicholas G.
New England Journal of Medicine. 1990 Feb 1; 322(5): 309-315.
The authors describe their observational study of decisions in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two hospitals of the University of California at San Francisco. Their object was to explore the manner, reasons, and circumstances under which life support is withheld or withdrawn. Questionnaires were used to collect data on diagnosis, duration of intensive care, cause of death, the decision making process, do-not-resuscitate orders, advance directives, and why and how life support was withheld or withdrawn. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for the manner in which decisions concerning life-sustaining care are made. They urge further studies of decisions to withhold or withdraw care to facilitate the formulation of critical care standards. (KIE abstract)
Advance Directives; Allowing to Die; Biomedical Technologies; Brain; Critically Ill; Consent; Death; Decision Making; Diagnosis; Evaluation; Family Members; Hospitals; Institutional Policies; Intensive Care Units; Life; Mortality; Patient Care; Patient Care Team; Physicians; Prognosis; Questionnaires; Resuscitation; Resuscitation Orders; Standards; Statistics; Survey; Third Party Consent; Ventilators; Withholding Treatment;
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Ordering and Administration of Sedatives and Analgesics During the Withholding and Withdrawal of Life Support From Critically Ill Patients Wilson, William C.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Fink, Carol; McDowell, James A. (1992-02-19)
Ordering and Administration of Sedatives and Analgesics During the Withholding and Withdrawal of Life Support From Critically Ill Patients Wilson, William C.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Fink, Carol; McDowell, James A.; Luce, John M. (1992-02-19)Objective. -- To determine why and how sedatives and analgesics are ordered and administered during the withholding and withdrawal of life support from critically ill patients. Design. -- Prospective case series. Setting. ...