Academic Sanction: Targeting South African Science
JAMA. 1989 Sep 15; 262(11): 1499-1503.
An American physician outlines the pros and cons of imposing academic sanction, i.e., the restriction of scholarly exchange for the purpose of protesting the social and political policies of governments. Focusing on the South African situation, while also giving examples from other parts of the world, Crawshaw discusses the imposition of sanction by governments, by professional organizations, and by individual scientists. He argues that academic sanction threatens the open exchange of science and has little or no documented effectiveness on international politics. (KIE abstract)
Biomedical Research; Dissent; Discrimination; Education; Ethics; Fraud; Human Rights; International Aspects; Investigators; Medical Education; Misconduct; Organizational Policies; Organizations; Physicians; Political Activity; Politics; Professional Ethics; Professional Organizations; Psychiatry; Public Policy; Punishment; Research; Rights; Science; Scientific Misconduct; Social Discrimination; Universities;
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