Is Women's Labor a Commodity?
Anderson, Elizabeth S.
Philosophy and Public Affairs. 1990 Winter; 19(1): 71-92.
...A commercial surrogate mother is anyone who is paid money to bear a child for other people and terminate her parental rights, so that the others may raise the child as exclusively their own. The growth of commercial surrogacy has raised with new urgency a class of concerns regarding the proper scope of the market. Some critics have objected to commercial surrogacy on the ground that it improperly treats children and women's reproductive capacities as commodities. The prospect of reducing children to consumer durables and women to baby factories surely inspires revulsion. But are there good reasons behind the revulsion? And is this an accurate description of what commercial surrogacy implies? This article offers a theory about what things are properly regarded as commodities which supports the claim that commercial surrogacy constitutes an unconscionable commodification of children and of women's reproductive capacities.
Adoption; Altruism; Autonomy; Children; Coercion; Commodification; Contracts; Dehumanization; Economics; Family Relationship; Females; Freedom; Government; Industry; Love; Moral Policy; Mothers; Motivation; Philosophy; Property Rights; Psychological Stress; Property; Regulation; Remuneration; Reproduction; Rights; Social Dominance; Surrogate Mothers; Values; Women's Rights;
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Do International Sanctions Reduce Child Labor? Evaluating the Impact of the 1992 U.S. Child Labor Deterrence Act on Bangladesh Ranade, Elizabeth; Ranade, Elizabeth (2007-04-18)In the world today, an estimated 250 million children between the ages of five and fourteen are working to help support their families. Most economists agree that the root causes of poverty and thereby the determinants ...