Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders
JAMA. 1991 Apr 10; 265(14): 1868-1871.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is routinely performed on hospitalized patients who suffer cardiac or respiratory arrest. Consent to administer CPR is presumed since the patient is incapable at the moment of arrest of communicating his or her treatment preference...Two exceptions to the presumption favoring CPR have been recognized, however. First, a patient may express in advance his or her preference that CPR be withheld. If the patient is incapable of expressing a preference, the decision to forgo resuscitation may be made by the patient's family or other surrogate decision maker. Second, CPR may be withheld if, in the judgment of the treating physician, an attempt to resuscitate the patient would be futile. In December 1987, the American Medical Association's Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs issued a series of guidelines to assist hospital medical staffs in formulating appropriate resuscitation policies. The Council's position...is updated in this report.
Advance Directives; Autonomy; Chronically Ill; Competence; Consent; Diagnosis; Emergency Care; Futility; Goals; Guidelines; Hospitals; Institutional Policies; Life; Mortality; Organizational Policies; Organizations; Patients; Physicians; Presumed Consent; Prevalence; Professional Organizations; Prognosis; Quality of Life; Resuscitation; Resuscitation Orders; Risks and Benefits; Standards; Terminally Ill; Third Party Consent; Values; Withholding Treatment;
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