Justice and Care: The Implications of the Kohlberg-Gilligan Debate for Medical Ethics
Sharpe, Virginia A.
Theoretical Medicine. 1992 Dec; 13(4): 295-318.
Carol Gilligan has identified two orientations to moral understanding; the dominant 'justice orientation' and the under-valued 'care orientation'. Based on her discernment of a 'voice of care', Gilligan challenges the adequacy of a deontological liberal framework for moral development and moral theory. This paper examines how the orientations of justice and care are played out in medical ethical theory. Specifically, I question whether the medical moral domain is adequately described by the norms of impartiality, universality, and equality that characterize the liberal ideal. My analysis of justice-oriented medical ethics focuses on the libertarian theory of H.T. Engelhardt and the contractarian theory of R.M. Veatch. I suggest that in the work of E.D. Pellegrino and D.C. Thomasma we find not only a more authentic representation of medical morality but also a project that is compatible with the care orientation's emphasis on human need and responsiveness to particular others.
Autonomy; Beneficence; Bioethics; Caring; Contracts; Ethical Analysis; Ethical Theory; Ethics; Females; Freedom; Justice; Males; Medical Ethics; Medicine; Moral Development; Moral Obligations; Morality; Patients; Personhood; Philosophy; Physician Patient Relationship; Physicians; Professional Patient Relationship; Self Concept; Social Interaction;
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