The Continuing Unethical Use of Placebo Controls
Rothman, Kenneth J.
Michels, Karin B.
New England Journal of Medicine. 1994 Aug 11; 331(6): 394-398.
Unaccountably, in these times of raised ethical consciousness, placebo treatments are still commonly used in medical research in circumstances in which their use is unethical. We refer not to the deceptive use of placebo, but to studies in which patients are informed that they may receive a placebo and then give their consent. Even so, such studies are unethical if patients are assigned a placebo instead of a therapy effective in treating their condition. Here we examine why this ethical breach persists and suggest ways to reduce it.
Accountability; Codes of Ethics; Consciousness; Control Groups; Consent; Drugs; Ethical Review; Ethics; Federal Government; Food; Government; Government Regulation; Human Experimentation; Informed Consent; Investigational Drugs; Investigators; Misconduct; Medical Research; Patients; Placebos; Random Selection; Regulation; Research; Research Design; Research Ethics; Research Subjects; Review; Risks and Benefits; Scientific Misconduct; Standards;
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Schechter, Clyde; Cagliano, Stefano; Traversa, Giuseppe; Taylor, Hugh R.; Nash, Stephen D.; Gilbert, Edward M.; Packer, Milton; Cleophas, Ton J.M.; Pohl, Robert; Balon, Richard; Denny, William F.; Sramek, John J.; Cutler, Neal R.; Solomon, David A.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Michels, Karin B. (1995-01-05)
Michels, Karin B.; Rothman, Kenneth J. (2003-04)The most recent (Fifth) revision of the Declaration of Helsinki, adopted in October 2000 by the World Medical Association (WMA), reinforces the longstanding prohibition against offering placebo instead of effective therapy. ...