The Fifth Freedom
Bioethics. 1995 Jul; 9(3/4): 183-191.
Women in developing countries suffer considerable morbidity and mortality due to inability to control their own fertility and lack of access to family planning services. Over 500,000 deaths each year are related to pregnancy. Two thirds of these maternal deaths could be prevented by providing contraception to those women who wish to use it in developing countries. There is no tenable ethical defence of cultural and religious behaviour which denies a women a choice as to whether she will undertake a pregnancy or not. Implementaion of the principles of the programme of action from the 1994 Cairo Population Conference would, through empowering women to control their own fertility, have a huge impact on maternal health in the developing world. [Kincaid-Smith is president of the World Medical Association].
Aids; Childbirth; Children; Contraception; Developing Countries; Ethics; Family Planning; Females; Freedom; Fertility; Health; Human Rights; Infants; International Aspects; Maternal Health; Morbidity; Mortality; Obligations of Society; Pregnant Women; Pregnancy; Religion; Rights; Roman Catholic Ethics; Socioeconomic Factors; Women's Health; Women's Rights;
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Smith, Priscilla Kincaid (1982-05-01)A recent conference arranged by the Centre for Human Bioethics at Australia's Monash University considered the ethical issues raised by in vitro fertilization and related technologies. While many participants supported ...