The Ethics of the Health Care Market
Nursing Ethics. 1996 Mar; 3(1): 3-7.
The free market theory has as its basis the assumption of equity. This equity is ascribed to both purchasers and providers in a perfectly balanced system so that there are seen to be no 'winners' or 'losers' in the market-place. The health system that is developing in the UK is structured as a managed market, but agency relationships between GPs and health authorities buffer the costing process of goods and therefore may be described as distorting the price. This could also be distorting the ability of the users, who are the real purchasers, from exercising their economic freedom. They may also lose the autonomy to choose goods that suit their particular needs, and equally not to choose those services that they do not want or wish to pay for vicariously (i.e. that the common good is respected by both providers and purchasers). This assumes that users of the service know the level of choice that they have and that not only are providers protected at present by the practices of the purchasers but also entry into the market for new providers is severely curtailed. The exercise of true freedom of the market in economic terms is one of moral obligation to provide services that not only have a market value that is affordable and a requirement of the 'common good' but also are historically acceptable for social requirements (i.e. that the services are valued as fundamental tenets of the rights of individuals in society). The expression of this need will therefore be utilitarian (i.e. the users of the services should benefit from them rather than the providers).
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Ethics and Research Governance: The Views of Researchers, Health-Care Professionals and Other Stakeholders Hallowell, Nina; Cooke, Sarah; Crawford, Gill; Parker, Michael; Lucassen, Anneke (2008-06)The objective of this study is to describe researchers', health-care providers' and other stakeholders' views of ethical review and research governance procedures. The study design involved qualitative semi-structured ...