Hospitals and Civil Rights, 1945-1963: The Case of Simkins v Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital
Reynolds, P. Preston
Annals of Internal Medicine. 1997 Jun 1; 126(11): 898-906.
In the 1960s, the legacy of discrimination against black persons still existed in all areas of medicine. This historical analysis investigates the strategies that were used by lawyers alongside physicians, dentists, and patients in elevating health care for black persons. Primary resources include oral histories, government documents, hospital records, archival and personal manuscripts, and professional and hospital periodicals. After World War II, leaders in the black community were determined to improve health care for black persons by ending discrimination in hospital policies and practices. Leaders of professional organizations developed a collaborative strategy that involved the court system, federal legislation, and research and education of the public and health professionals to integrate the hospital system rather than to expand the existing separate-but-equal system. Efforts culminated in the case of Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital; this case became the landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court and led to the elimination of segregated health care. Three months after the case, President Johnson ratified the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which included Title VI, thus extending the policy of equality to all federal programs. Laying a foundation for universal access to health care in the United States depended on a victory in the courts, in national health legislation, and in public opinion. All were achieved through strategic efforts to amass widespread support for the elimination of discrimination in medicine.
Access to Health Care; Civil Rights; Dentistry; Discrimination; Education; Employment; Federal Government; Government; Health; Health Care; Health Care Delivery; Health Personnel; Historical Aspects; Hospitals; Hospital Policies; Institutional Policies; Lawyers; Legal Aspects; Legal Rights; Legislation; Medical Education; Medicine; Organizations; Patients; Physicians; Political Activity; Professional Organizations; Public Opinion; Public Policy; Records; Refusal to Treat; Research; Rights; Social Discrimination; Supreme Court Decisions; War;
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The Federal Government's Use of Title VI and Medicare to Racially Integrate Hospitals in the United States, 1963 Through 1967 Reynolds, P. Preston (1997-11)Explicit discrimination against minorities existed in the 1960s in hospital patient admissions and physician and nurse staff appointments. With passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, along with Medicare legislation ...