Four Ways People Approach Ethics
Health Progress. 1998 Nov-Dec; 79(6): 38-41, 43.
Most people use four different approaches when making ethical decisions. Some people use one approach predominantly; others vary their approaches according to circumstances. In either case, the approaches are usually chosen unconsciously. The main source of conflict in decision making is the fact that two parties have chosen different approaches. The four approaches are: The principle approach, in which decisions are made according to a principle such as the Ten Commandments or the Golden Rule The consequence approach, in which decisions are made according to their likely outcomes The virtue/character approach, in which decisions are made according to the decision makers's view of his or her responsibilities The moral sentiment approach, in which decisions are made according to the decision maker's feelings Conflicts in decision making become easier to resolve once the decision makers, first, recognize that they are using different approaches, and, second, agree to "change gears" and use the same approach.
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Faden, Ruth; Donovan, Peter J.; Harris, John; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Mathews, Debra J.H.; Savulescu, Julian; Azariah, Jayapual; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bok, Hilary; Brunelli, Silvia; Campbell, Philip; Chan, Sarah; Cheng, Linzahao; Coles, David; Devolder, Katrien; Finkel, Julia; Friele, Minou; Heyd, David; Honey, Colin; Hyun, Insoo; Isasi, Rosario M.; Kyu Won, Jung; Liao, S. Matthew; McLaren, Anne; Mori, Maurizio; Munthe, Christian; Murdoch, Alison; Nakatsuji, Norio; O'Toole, Chris; Panicker, Mitradas M.; Patterson, Mark; Pedersen, Roger A.; Pera, Martin Frederick; Purnell, Beverly A.; Regenberg, Alan; Qui, Ren-Zong; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M.; Salter, Brian; Samuelson, Taylor; Santalo, Josep; Saunders, Rhodri; Sheng, Hui Z.; Skene, Loane; Solter, Davor; Stacey, Glyn; Stubing, William C.; Sugarman, Jeremy; Sugden, Andrew M.; Van Steirteghem, Andre; Wallace, Susan E.; Walters, LeRoy B.; Zambidis, Elias T. (The Hinxton Group. An international consortium on stem cells, ethics and law, 2006-02-24)