Moral Aspects of Risk and Innovation
Artificial Organs. 1997 Nov; 21(11): 1217-1221.
In all areas of technological innovation and application, there are nontechnical (moral, cultural, religious, political, and regulatory) risk factors and uncertainties that have to be taken into account if research design and introduction of new devices and applications are to be successful. Products and methods will be beneficial to the patient if they meet personal and cultural expectations. Value assessment of individual patients and of cultural preferences and obstacles therefore has to be included in complex technology assessment. Successful recognition and management of moral and cultural risk factors may require changes in governmental regulation and research design and the development of risk recognition competence within professional organizations.
Artificial Organs; Autonomy; Beneficence; Biomedical Technologies; Competence; Cultural Pluralism; Consent; Education; Government; Government Regulation; Health; Health Hazards; Informed Consent; Medical Devices; Methods; Moral Policy; Organizations; Paternalism; Patient Care; Patients; Politics; Professional Organizations; Regulation; Research; Research Design; Risk; Risks and Benefits; Technology; Technology Assessment; Uncertainty; Values;