Ancient Chinese Medical Ethics and the Four Principles of Biomedical Ethics
Tsai, Daniel Fu-Chang
Journal of Medical Ethics. 1999 Aug; 25(4): 315-321.
The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs".
Autonomy; Beneficence; Bioethics; Common Good; Comparative Studies; Compassion; Competence; Confidentiality; Deontological Ethics; Disclosure; Discrimination; Empathy; Ethics; Family Relationship; Historical Aspects; Interprofessional Relations; Justice; Life; Literature; Medical Ethics; Moral Obligations; Morality; Non-Western World; Parent Child Relationship; Paternalism; Physicians; Principle-Based Ethics; Professional Competence; Social Discrimination; Trust; Truth Disclosure; Value of Life; Values; Virtues; Western World;
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