Racial Discrimination and Skin Color in the CARDIA Study: Implications for Public Health Research
American Journal of Public Health. 1998 Sep; 88(9): 1308-1313.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed whether skin color and ways of handling anger can serve as markers for experiences of racial discrimination and responses to unfair treatment in public health research. METHODS: Survey data on 1844 Black women and Black men (24 to 42 years old), collected in the year 5 (1990-1991) and year 7 (1992-1993) examinations of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, were examined. RESULTS: Skin color was not associated with self-reported experiences of racial discrimination in 5 of 7 specified situations (getting a job, at work, getting housing, getting medical care, in a public setting). Only moderate associations existed between darker skin color and being working class, having low income or low education, and being male (risk ratios under 2). Comparably moderate associations existed between internalizing anger and typically responding to unfair treatment as a fact of life or keeping such treatment to oneself. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and responses to unfair treatment should be measured directly in public health research; data on skin color and ways of handling anger are not sufficient.
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Self-Reported Experiences of Racial Discrimination and Black- White Differences in Preterm and Low-Birthweight Deliveries: The CARDIA Study Mustillo, Sarah; Krieger, Nancy; Gunderson, Erica P.; Sidney, Stephen; McCreath, Heather; Kiefe, Catarina I. (2004-12)