Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Race-, Sex-, and Age- Based Disparities
Murthy, Vivek H.
Krumholz, Harlan M.
Gross, Cary P.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 2004 June 9; 291(22): 2720-2726
CONTEXT: Despite the importance of diversity of cancer trial participants with regard to race, ethnicity, age, and sex, there is little recent information about the representation of these groups in clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the representation of racial and ethnic minorities, the elderly, and women in cancer trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Cross-sectional population-based analysis of all participants in therapeutic nonsurgical National Cancer Institute Clinical Trial Cooperative Group breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer clinical trials in 2000 through 2002. In a separate analysis, the ethnic distribution of patients enrolled in 2000 through 2002 was compared with those enrolled in 1996 through 1998, using logistic regression models to estimate the relative risk ratio of enrollment for racial and ethnic minorities to that of white patients during these time periods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Enrollment fraction, defined as the number of trial enrollees divided by the estimated US cancer cases in each race and age subgroup. RESULTS: Cancer research participation varied significantly across racial/ethnic and age groups. Compared with a 1.8% enrollment fraction among white patients, lower enrollment fractions were noted in Hispanic (1.3%; odds ratio [OR] vs whites, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.77; P
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